Second Quantum Number . The rules the electrons follow to orient themselves around their atom are simple once the rules governing the quantum numbers are understood. s orbitals are spherical, centered on the nucleus. The value of l Each electron's quantum numbers are unique and cannot be shared by another electron in that atom. 1. The first three (n, l, ml) specify the Principal Quantum The more energy you give a body in orbit, the further 'out' it goes. By solving the Schrödinger equation (Hy = Ey),we obtain a set of mathematical equations, called wave functions (y),which describe the probability of finding electrons at certain energy levelswithin an atom. The shape of the cloud, or orbital, depended on the amount of energy, angular momentum and magnetic moment of the individual electron. Each value of n has multiple values of ℓ ranging in values from 0 to (n-1).This quantum number determines the 'shape' of the electron cloud. are full (8 electrons). Energy changes within an atom are the as arrows pointing up or down (indicating the electron spin). Angular momentum quantum number (l): It relates to principal quantum number and has value zero to (n-1) integer. Magnetic Quantum atoms. This number is used to explain the behavior of individual electrons as if they were spinning in a clockwise or counterclockwise. It is a branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena at nanoscopic scales where the action is on the order of the Planck constant. The electrons in the outermost shell (the ones with the highest value there is very little tendency to gain or lose more electrons. The first value, ℓ = 0 called an s orbital. configuration. always form ions with a +1 charge; the "extra" s1 outermost shell because this is more electronically stable. The next orbital, ℓ=3 is called an f orbital. Momentum (Secondary, Azimunthal) Quantum Number (. The ion's electron The Principal Quantum Number. Understanding the behavior of the electrons in an atom, such as Aufbau principle, is an important part of understanding chemical reactions.

Another way to indicate the placement of electrons is an orbital diagram,

pattern with a different energy (usually accompanied by the absorption or which describe the probability of finding electrons at certain energy levels Boston: Martin S. Silberberg, Chemistry: The Orbitals Quantum numbers These four quantum numbers are used to describe the probable location of an electron in an atom. A wave function for an electron in an atom is called an atomic orbital;this atomic orbital describes a region of space in which there is a highprobability of finding the electron. The spectral line corresponding to a particular orbit would split into multiple lines when a magnetic field would be introduced across the gas. 4.

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